Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Once More Into the Fray: The Remediation of Poetry in Liam Neeson's The Grey

Anyone notice that—like G.I. Jane (1997) and The Expendables (2010)—the 2011 Liam Neeson flick The Grey ends with a poem? Yup: it's a four line verse titled "The Fray" that main character Ottway (played by Neeson, a trained hunter hired to protect oil workers from wolves in Alaska) remembers hanging in a frame over the desk in his father's den and that runs through his head (and in flashback on the screen) as he prepares to make a last stand against a wolf pack that has been pursuing him and systematically offing the other survivors of a plane crash in Alaska. (Check out the movie's last scene in the first video clip at the end of this posting; for some reason, btw, the scene has been transposed on the youtube clip so that the poem appears as a mirror image of the original and reads backwards [it reads forward in the original]; you'll get the idea nonetheless).

The Grey does G.I. Jane and The Expend- ables one better, though, as the poem (pictured here) doesn't just end the movie but provides the frame mechanism for the entire narrative itself (it's even quoted on the movie poster). Indeed, at the beginning of the film—during a heavy-handed montage that shows Ottway killing wolves, lying in bed with his wife whom we eventually learn has died, writing a final letter to her about how miserable his life has become, flashing back to what we eventually learn is his childhood, and making preparations to commit suicide—the poem's words run through his head as part of a voice-over, presumably a section of what he's writing in his final letter. At this point, though, we don't even know it's a poem. In fact, the clash of discursive registers between it and what he's thinking is a little confusing: "I want to see your face, feel your hands in mine, feel you against me. And I know that will never be. You left me. And I can’t get you back … I don’t know why I’m writing this. I don’t know what can come of it. I know I can’t get you back … I don’t know why this has happened to us. I feel like it’s me. Bad luck. Poison … And I’ve stopped doing this world any real good...," he writes. Ottway pauses, then adds the poem's first two lines, "Once more into the fray—into the last good fight I'll ever know." The camera shows Ottway putting a rifle muzzle into his mouth, and then we hear the poem's final lines, "Live and die on this day...  Live and die on this day..."

What we don't know at the beginning of the movie— that he's remem- bering a poem, that his father wrote it, that it hung above his father's desk in the den—gets cleared up partway through the film, after the plane crash, after lots of competition for the Alpha position among the crash survivors, and after the men seek shelter in the woods. There, around a campfire, as the wolves surround them in the darkness, and as one of their group is hallucinating in the process of dying from hypoxia, the men start sharing their stories—about sex, faith, family, and whatever source of inspiration keeps them fighting. Ottway, by this point established as the group's Alpha, tells part of his story and, in an extended scene, flashes back to his childhood. Here's what he says:
My dad, uh, my dad was not without love. But a clichéd Irish motherfucker when he wanted to be—drinker, brawler, all that stuff. Never shed a tear. Saw weakness everywhere. But he had this thing for poems—poetry. Readin' 'em, quotin' em. Probably thought it rounded him off. His way of apologizing, I guess. There was one that hung over his desk in the den. It was only when I was a lot older did I realize that he'd written it. It was untitled—four lines. I read it at his funeral: "Once more into the fray / Into the last good fight I'll ever know / Live and die on this day / Live and die on this day."
A clap of thunder sounds. Ottway concludes, "Storm clouds." And the men turn their attention back to the present.

So, by the last scene of the movie, then, we've heard the poem twice, and we've seen it—or at least the paper it's written on—several other times as Ottway has stored the letter in which it's written in his wallet and saved it from the plane's burning wreckage. Ottway is the only one left alive, and he's somehow managed to stumble into the wolves' den, metaphor that it is for all of his unresolved issues. Surrounded by bones, standing in the falling snow, and ringed by the wolf pack, he kneels down, makes a pile of all the wallets that he's been collecting from everyone who's died, and adds his own to the stack. He flashes back to the woman we saw him thinking about and writing to in the film's opening montage, and we realize now, for the first time, that she she didn't leave him but died, perhaps of cancer. Then he tapes a dagger to one hand, breaks a bunch of airplane liquor bottles against a rock so that they become weapons, and tapes them to his other hand. Thus armed for his final stand, he flashes back again to his dad's den where the poem hangs on the wall. (You get get it, don't you? Wolf den=dad's den?) He says, "Once more into the fray."

Then, as you can see for yourself in the backwards video clip below, the camera shows us the poem. But what's remarkable about this scene is that we don't see the typewritten poem clearly at first. Rather, in becoming a metaphor for his life, which has slowly come into focus over the course of the film, the poem is blurry at first and is brought into focus and made readable by the camera, letting the audience experience in miniature Ottway's journey toward clarity. With the poem newly readable, Ottway repeats it a final time:
Once more into the fray...
Into the last good fight I'll ever know...
Live and die on this day...
Live and die on this day...
When the camera takes us away from Ottway's father's den and back to the wolf den, we see Ottway still mouthing the words to the poem. We see him next as a boy sitting on his father's lap. We see the woods. We have a close-up on his eyes. We hear a growl that may come from him or from the wolves. Then Ottway leaps forward toward the viewer, and the camera goes black.

Back when we discussed G.I. Jane, P&PC argued that the last scene of that movie (in which the camera helped us to read and interpret an annotated print version of D.H. Lawrence's poem "Self Pity") positioned the film's director—and, by extension, the medium of film—as a type of literary critic better suited than the pencil, pen, or book to the interpretation of poetry in the age of new media. In the last scene of The Grey we see a similar thing happening all over again, as it's not the emotional content of the poem, per se, or the conclusions we as an audience come to about the significance of the poem via our own reading or someone else's annotations, but, rather, the film's treatment of the poem in its various forms that becomes the most important (or at least the most foregrounded) expressive and interpretive act, heavy handed in its metaphor though it may be.

It is, after all, the camera—a piece of technology whose multimodal capacities add to the emotion, interiority, and clarity of insight typically associated with poetry—that makes the verse readable, literally giving us a focus that we did not have previously. As the external manifestation of Ottway's internal state, the movie thus positions film (not the poem, letter, or typewritten document) as the most complete expression of the human psyche, able to bring together and synthesize Ottway's thinking (the memorized poem), speaking (the recited poem), writing (the letter to his wife), and typewriting (the version of the poem on the wall of Ottway's father's den) as no other medium can. That is, thanks to film, we can see the poem thought, spoken, written, and typewritten all at the same time.

You might be asking yourself, how can poetry compete with this tour-de-force and with all the resources that film has at its disposal? Well, we here at P&PC think that maybe that's the wrong question to be asking. As Henry Jenkins writes in his Introduction to Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, "[O]nce a medium establishes itself as satisfying some core human demand, it continues to function within the larger system of communication options. Once recorded sound becomes a possibility, we have continued to develop new and improved means of recording and playing back sound. Printed words did not kill spoken words. Cinema did not kill theater. Television did not kill radio. Each old medium was forced to coexist with the emerging media....Old media are not being displaced. Rather, their functions and status are shifted by the introduction of new technologies" (14). In other words, maybe The Gray and films like it aren't in the process of disparaging or one-upping poetry (as we've previously argued) so much as they are grounding themselves and their own credibility in poetry and, in the process, opening new possibilities for experiencing poetry. Rather than experiencing the poem solely as a print artifact, for example, The Gray lets us experience it in many media simultaneously.

As a medium, poetry more than just survived the transition from oral culture to written culture (no one today would advocate for going back to a purely oral or spoken poetry). Then it more than just survived the transition from written culture to print culture (no one would advocate for abandoning printed books and going back to only handwritten poetry). Along its long history of remediation, poetry only got more and more complex and more and more aesthetically rich, retaining aspects of its previous media manifestations and mixing those with new ones. As obsessed with the past as Neeson's story in The Gray may be (Ottway's dead father, his dead lover, etc.), the film may nevertheless be pointing us to the future of poetry.


Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
mhakus said...

Wonderful post. I just re-watched The Grey and wanted to see if anyone had commentary about it. What's your take on the ending after the credits?

Billy said...

Great movie, and great article. Take this back one more step though, and ask yourself if any of this was even real. The movie shows us that his attempted suicide was interrupted, or was it? He and a few others survive a horrific plan crash, or do they? All that is said above is true in either case, but it just may be that Ottway is never really even alive for the majority of the film, but rather we are entreated to his purgatory, the grey, between life and death.

rintelman said...

Awesome movie and good post. Nice insight from Billy as well. Apparently the short story novel is also good by Ian MacKenzie Jeffers. This poem should be read at my funeral as well!

Unknown said...

...and so, we are allowed the luxury of judgement? Lifes final moments, is the how and when we each deal with it. Whether in conflict or natural of causes; good luck to all...the remainder, left wondering; a sick joke? Ahhh, the luxury of judgement; cheers!!

Unknown said...

I didn't like it because he died in the end.

Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Jan said...

Excellent movie, excellent article, but do you know who penned this poem?

Anonymous said...

If you keep on watching after the credits of the movie it shows both the wolf and him breathing

Unknown said...

Yes, Joe Carnahan the director wrote it, he based it off of Act III Scene I of Henry V. The whole movie revolves around the poem...basically face your fears and give it all you got everyday.
Here's the line from Shakespeare's: "Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more;
Or close the wall up with our English dead..."

Unknown said...

What can I say that others haven't. Outstanding post. Thought provoking and insightful. Very well written too. As for the movie itself, I did not feel like I am watching a movie. I felt like I was part of the survivors shown in the movie. Riveting, touching and poignant.

- Dexter Nathan.
Author of "Long-Awaited Dawn"

Robbie said...

Just watched the movie for the first time. It was like a journey more than a movie, and the above post is well written. Well done. I actually came here through the fact I love to read everything about a movie I have just watched, and I'm a big fan of poems..
and soundtracks. Anyway, thanks for posting, and now I'm gonna seek the original poem, Shakespeare and so on. Thanks!!

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Glad I ran into your post, excellent work.

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Unknown said...

Ian Cover, the poem was written by Jon Treloar. Once more in to the breach & Once more into the Fray are written by different people. If you go to the Poem Hunter website you will find more of Treloar's poems.

Unknown said...

I saw the movie on dvd. Not theatre. As it ended I switched it off. Weeks later my neighbors came over to watch it. Turned it off at the credits... and kept cleaning the mess in the living room and while sweeping the floor I noticed the TV. Next day had my neighbors over again to watch the last few seconds .... was funny situation. Everyone was stunned.

Unknown said...

I saw the movie on dvd. Not theatre. As it ended I switched it off. Weeks later my neighbors came over to watch it. Turned it off at the credits... and kept cleaning the mess in the living room and while sweeping the floor I noticed the TV. Next day had my neighbors over again to watch the last few seconds .... was funny situation. Everyone was stunned.

Nalin Sen said...

Excellent post over an excellent movie. It's a metaphor that clearly fits in at every hard time of our life. I enjoyed it way too much

Unknown said...

Well written post.
Excellent movie. love the poem

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Jimmy Crackcorn said...

Yea first time I saw the movie I didn't see that but this time I did. I only saw the wolf not attway breathing. Where is he in that final shot?

Unknown said...

A great article
I recently watched it as well and I enjoyed it very much. I certainly was hooked with the poem. 🖒

Enrique Ferro said...

As I perceived it during the extra seconds after the credits, the wolf was breathing but dying.

Unknown said...

He doesn’t far as the movie goes. He kills the wolf, and Liam has his hand on the wolf’s chest, like he did in the beginning of it when he shot that first wolf. However, he’s alone, defeated the alpha, still in the den, no remaining (human) survivors. It’s about ten minutes when you think the movie ends. The credits roll, then that last scene comes in. But again, he’s still alone, in a den with’s just depressing however you see it. IMO.

Unknown said...

Reading it 2018. Wow

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A great article
I recently watched it as well and I enjoyed it very much. I certainly was hooked with the poem

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چرا سینک ها به چربی گیر نیاز دارند؟
آشپزخانه های بزرگ یا کوچک، خانگی یا تجاری، در حین فعالیت های پخت و پز، در تهیه غذا و هنگام شستن ظروف، فاضلاب تولید می کنند. فاضلاب ایجاد شده در طی این اقدامات اغلب حاوی چربی، روغن و ذرات غذای جامد است. به طور خاص، اگر از ماشین ظرفشویی، اجاق های ترکیبی و روغن داغ استفاده می کنید، مقدار زیادی چربی گیر اضافی تولید خواهید کرد. در صورت عدم کنترل، این عناصر در زهکشی ها و لوله های فاضلاب انباشته می شوند. چربی‌ها و گریس‌های پخت و پز با ویسکوزیته بالا مانند گوشت خوک پس از سرد شدن در لوله‌های شما جامد می‌شوند. با گذشت زمان، بدون کمک چربی گیر منجر به مشکلاتی مانند: -
جریان محدود فاضلاب
- بوهای غیرقابل قبول
- مسدود شدن لوله‌های تخلیه و فاضلاب منجر به پس‌آپ پسماند می‌شود.
- برای جلوگیری از بروز این مشکلات، آشپزخانه ها باید چربی گیر را در زهکشی خود نصب کنند.
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چربی‌گیرها به عنوان دستگاه‌های لوله‌کشی مؤثری استفاده می‌شوند که گریس، روغن و مواد جامد را قبل از ورود به سیستم‌های زهکشی دفع می‌کنند. آنها شبیه جعبه هایی هستند که در داخل فاضلاب شما قرار می گیرند و جریان فاضلاب را بین سینک آشپزخانه شما و سیستم زهکشی اصلی قطع می کنند. آنها می توانند از مواد مختلفی مانند فولاد ضد زنگ، بتن یا پلاستیک ساخته شوند و بسته به نوع ساختی که خریداری می کنید، تله های چربی با طیف گسترده ای از ظرفیت های جایگزین ارائه می شوند. از آنجایی که آنها مقادیر زیادی از چربی و چربی های زائد شما را جمع می کنند، تمیز کردن منظم به صورت هفتگی یک الزام است.
هنگامی که فاضلاب ماشین ظرفشویی و سینک ظرفشویی شما وارد مخزن چربی گیر نصب شده شما می شود، به عنوان یک مخزن برای نگه داشتن فاضلاب و الک کردن مواد غذایی که ساعت به ساعت از تله عبور می کند عمل می کند. زباله های جامد به دلیل سنگین تر بودن به ته تله فرو می روند. مخزن فاضلاب به دام می اندازد، گریس را تا دمای اتاق خنک می کند و این مواد متعاقباً سفت می شوند. اکنون جامد، این مواد به سمت بالا شناور می شوند و تمام مایع را از وسط تله جابجا می کنند. یک تله چربی دارای اتصالات لوله محکمی است که به فاضلاب باقی مانده اجازه می دهد بدون محدودیت به لوله خروجی جریان یابد. پس از این، آب به خطوط اصلی فاضلاب تخلیه می‌شود، در حالی که گریس و روغن مشکل‌ساز در تله چربی شما باقی می‌ماند. می‌توانید چربی‌گیرهایی بخرید که حتی می‌توانند یک مخزن اضافی برای به دام انداختن چربی‌هایی داشته باشند که ممکن است از اولین تله شما فرار کرده باشند. فرآیند کامل فیلتراسیونی که از یک تله چربی دریافت می کنید به جلوگیری از انسدادهای عمده کمک می کند.
دانستن نحوه کارکرد چربی گیر بسیار مهم است زیرا این امر به شما کمک می کند تا مزایای نصب آن را بشناسید. با تعمیر و نگهداری منظم، می توانید مطمئن شوید که تله چربی شما به سختی کار می کند تا سیستم زهکشی شما به خوبی کار کند.
چربی گیر غیرفعال چیست؟
از ضایعات مواد غذایی فاسد هستند. چربی ها، روغن ها و گریس (FOG) سبک تر از آب هستند و تا بالای مخازن شناور می شوند.
چربی گیر (در بالای زمین) مخازن فلزی یا پلاستیکی مورد نیاز در تاسیسات خدمات غذایی برای جلوگیری از ورود چربی، روغن و گریس به فاضلاب بهداشتی یا سیستم سپتیک هستند. چربی گیر مخازن بزرگی در فضای باز هستند که از ورود مه و مواد جامد مواد غذایی به فاضلاب بهداشتی یا سیستم سپتیک در تاسیسات رستوران جلوگیری می کنند.
چربی گیرهای معمولی به عنوان چربی گیر غیرفعال و چربی گیر مبتنی بر جاذبه شناخته می شوند. تله چربی در اصل بیش از 100 سال پیش طراحی شد. فناوری Grease Trap از دهه 1880 تقریباً بدون تغییر باقی مانده است.
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فاضلاب رستوران از سینک های 3 محفظه و ماشین ظرفشویی اتوماتیک وارد چربی گیرها می شود. مخزن چربی گیر به عنوان مخزنی عمل می کند که فاضلاب و مواد جامد غذایی را که وارد تله می شوند نگه می دارد. با سرد شدن فاضلاب، چربی، روغن و گریس (FOG) سفت شده و مواد جامد غذا ته نشین می شوند. FOG که از آب سبک تر است، تا بالای تله چربی شناور می شود. فاضلاب از طریق چربی گیر به فاضلاب بهداشتی خارج می شود. مه و مواد جامد غذا در مخزن باقی می مانند و حجم آنها روزانه افزایش می یابد. جامدات غذا و لجن چربی گیر در کف چربی گیر می نشیند.

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